LISTING OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE USED DURING RESEARCH FOR THE MOVIE

The following articles, papers and studies are, as we believe, the essential basis for the understanding of the issue of “contaminated cabin air”, its impact and effects. All were used and regarded as part of our research efforts and reporting conducted since early 2008. Most of them are available through public or University libraries.

  • Abou-Donia MB.: Organophosphorus Ester-Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity, 2003, Archives of Environmental Health. 58:484 497
  • Carletti et al: Reaction of Cresyl Saligenin Phosphate, the Organophosphorus Agent Implicated in Aerotoxic Syndrome, with Human Cholinesterases: Mechanistic Studies Employing Kinetics, Mass Spectrometry, and X-ray Structure Analysis, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2011, 24, 797–808, 2011
  • Furlong, C., L.M. Schopfer et al.: Development of diagnostics in the search for an explanation of aerotoxic syndrome, Annual Biochem 404(1):64-74 (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2010.04.032
  • Hanhela P., Kibby J., et al.: Organophosphate and Amine Contamination of Cockpit Air in the Hawk, F-111 and Hercules C-130 Aircraft. DSTO Report, RR-0303. Defence Science and Technology Organization, Melbourne. 2005
  • Journal of Occupational Health & Safety, Australia & New Zealand, Vol 21, Number 5, August 2005 – Special edition: „New findings in aircrew exposed to airborne contaminants: Long-term health effects confirmed“ – among these the following excerpts:
  • Abou-Donia, Mohamed B.: Organophosphate Ester Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity (OPICN)
  • Burdon, Jonathan MD and Allan R Glanville MD: Lung Injury Following Hydrocarbon Inhalation in BAe 146 Aircrew
  • Harper, Andrew MD: Illness Related to Cabin Air: A Survey of Symptoms and Treatment Among Commercial Pilots and Cabin Crew
  • Heuser, G. MD: Clinical Evaluation of Flight Attendants After Exposure to Fumes in Cabin Air
  • Kincl, L., J. Murawaski, S Hecker: Occupational health research consortium in aviation research project -**
  • Netten , C. van: Aircraft Air Quality Incidents, Symptoms, Exposures and Possible Solutions Somers, Moira, MD: Assessing over Thirty Flight Crew who have Presented as a Result of Being Unwell after Exposure to Fumes on the BAe 146 Jet
  • Lockridge, H.,: REACTION OF CRESYL SALIGENIN PHOSPHATE, THE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS IMPLICATED IN THE AEROTOXIC SYNDROME, WITH HUMAN CHOLINESTERASES: MECHANISTIC STUDIES EMPLOYING KINETICS, MASS SPECTROMETRY AND X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS, March 2011, Eugénie Carletti , Lawrence M. Schopfer , Jacques-Philippe Colletier , Marie T. Froment , Florian Nachon , Martin Weik , Oksana Lockridge , and Patrick Masson http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/tx100447k
  • Michaelis, S. (ed.): Aviation Contaminated Air Reference Manual, April 2007 ISBN: 978-0-9555672- 0-9
  • Michaelis, S., PhD: Health and Flight Safety Implications from Exposure to Contaminated Air in Aircraft, Dissertation Nov. 2010, University of New South Wales, ISBN: 978-0-95-554377-7
  • Nola, G. De, J. Kibby1, W. Mazurek: Determination of ortho-cresyl phosphate isomers of tricresyl phosphate used in aircraft turbine engine oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1200 (2008) 211 216
  • Royal Australian Air Force: Singh B. Aviation Safety Spotlight 0304: In-Flight Smoke and Fumes, 2004, RAAF
  • Siegel J., Rudolph H., et al.: Effects on Experimental Animals of Long- Term Continuous Inhalation of a Triaryl Phosphate Hydraulic Fluid 1964, U.S. Navy Toxicology Unit. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 7: 543-549
  • Solbu, K. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Norwegen):
    • Methodology for air sampling of organophosphates originating from turbine- and hydraulic oils, 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.05.087
    • Incident sampler of VOCs and volatile organophosphates, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B925053K
    • Exposure assessment of organophosphates in technician and loader occupational air, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0EM00273A [12.4]
    • Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air method development and measurements of contaminants, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0EM00763
  • C Solbu, Daae, Olsen, Thourud et al.: Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air, Feb. 2011, Journal of Enviromental Monitoring, DOI: 10.1039/c0em00763c
  • Treon J. F. et al. : Toxicity Of Certain Lubricants, Engine Oils, And Certain Of Their Constituents, With Particular Reference To The Products Of Their Thermal Decomposition, 1954, WADC TR 54- 344. Corporate Author: Kettering Laboratory, University Of Cincinnati. Aero Medical Laboratory Contract No. AF33(038)-26456. RDO No. 698-31, Wright Air Development Center, Air Research And Development Command, United States Air Force- Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. 1 November 1954.
  • Treon, J. F. , Cappel, J. W. , Cleveland, F. P. , Larson, E. E. , Atchley, R. W. and Denham, R. T.: The Toxicity of the Products Formed by the Thermal Decomposition of Certain Organic Substances, 1955, American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly, 16: 3, 187 195
  • AMA CAT (1953) Aviation Toxicology: an Introduction to the Subject and a Handbook of Data. AeroMedical Association Committee of Aviation Toxicology, Blakiston, USA
  • Tupper CR (1989) Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60:73–75
  • ASHRAE (1999) Air Quality Within Commercial Aircraft: ASHRAE Standard 161. American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, Airconditioning and Energy, Atlanta
  • MattieDR, Hoeflich TJ, Jones CE, Horton ML,Whitmire RE, Godin CS, Femming CD, Andesen ME (1993) The comparative toxicity of operational air force hydraulic fluids. Toxicology and Industrial Health 9:995–1016
  • Hewstone RK (1994) Environmental health aspects of lubricant additives. Science of the Total Environment 156:243–254
  • Winder C, Balouet J-C (2002) Toxic ingredients in commercial jet fuels. Environmental Research 89:146–164 FAA (1965)
  • Federal Air Regulations, Transport Category Airplanes, Airworthiness Standards, Section 25.831. US Federal Aviation Authority, Washington, DC
  • Balouet J-C, Winder C (1999) Aerotoxic syndrome in air crew as a result of exposure to airborne contaminants in aircraft. Paper presented at the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Symposium on Air Quality and Comfort in Airliner Cabins New Orleans, USA, 27-28 October 2000
  • Winder C, Balouet J-C (2001) Symptoms of irritation and toxicity in aircrew as a result of exposure to airborne chemicals in aircraft. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety – Australian and New Zealand 17:471–483
  • Trimble EJ (1996) The management of aircraft passenger survival in fire. Toxicology 115:41–61
  • ACC (2001) High Production Volume Chemical Submission, Substituted Diphenylamines. American Chemistry Council, Arlington VA, 18 December 2001. At: http://www.epa.gov.gov/chemrtk/subdiapha/c13378.pdf
  • Miyazaki K, Kawai S, Sasayama T, Iseki K, Arita T (1987) Absorption, metabolism and excretion of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine in rats. Yakuzaigaku (Archives of Practical Pharmacology) 47:17–22 (English abstract)
  • IPCS (1998) Concise International Chemical Assessment Document No 9: N-Phenyl-1- naphthylamine. International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva
  • Boman A, Hagelthorn G, Jeansson I, Karlberg A-T, Rystedt I, Wahlberg JE (1980) Phenyl-alphanaphthylamine– case report and guinea pig studies. Contact Dermatitis 6:299–300
  • Kalimo K, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Kanerva L (1989) Contact allergy to antioxidants in industrial greases. Contact Dermatitis 20:151–152
  • Carmichael AJ, Foulds IS (1990) Isolated naphthylamine allergy to phenyl- alphanapthylamine. Contact Dermatitis 22:298–299
  • Wang H-W, Wang D, Dzeng R-W (1984) Carcinogenicity of n-phenyl-1-naphthylamine and n-phenyl- 2-naphthylamine in mice. Cancer Research 44:3098–3100
  • Jarvholm B, Lavenius B (1981) A cohort study on cancer among workers exposed to an antirust oil. Scandinavian J Work Environment and Health 7:179–184 US NTP (1988) Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (feed studies). US National Toxicology Program, http://ntpserver. niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/lt-studies/tr333.html
  • Aldridge WN (1954) Tricresyl phosphate and cholinesterase. Biochemical J 56:185– 189
  • Johnson MK (1975) Structure activity relationship for substrates and inhibitors of hen brain neurotoxic esterase. Biochemical Pharmacology 24:797–805
  • Earl CJ, Thompson RHS (1952) Cholinesterase levels in the nervous system in triortho- cresyl phosphate poisoning. British J Pharmacology 7:685–694
  • Eyer P (1955) Neuropsychopathological changes by organophosphorus compounds– a review. Human and Experimental Toxicology 14:857–864
  • Kilburn KH (1999) Evidence for chronic neurobehavioral impairment from chlorpyrifos and organophosphate insecticide (Dursban) used indoors. Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology 1:153–162
  • Minton NA, Murray VSG (1988) A review of organophosphate poisoning. Medical Toxicology 3:350–375
  • Johnson MK (1975) Organophosphorus esters causing delayed neurotoxic effects. Archives of Toxicology 34:259–288
  • Metcalf RL (1982) Historical perspective of organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 3:269–284
  • Baron RL (1981) Delayed neurotoxicity and other consequences of organophosphate esters. Annual Reviews of Entolomology 26:29–48
  • Johnson MK (1990) Organophosphates and delayed neuropathy–Is NTE alive and well? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 102:385–399
  • Senanayake N, Karalliede L (1987) Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus esters. An intermediate syndrome. New England J Medicine 316:761–763
  • Dille JR, Smith PW (1964) Central nervous system effects of chronic exposure to organophosphate insecticides. Aerospace Medicine 35:475–478
  • UK DoH (1999) Toxicology of OPs and the mechanisms involved. In: Organophosphates. Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment, Chap. 5. UK Department of Health, HMSO, London, pp 49–58
  • Jamal GA (1997) Neurological syndromes of organophosphorus compounds. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicology Reviews 16:133–170
  • Savage EP, Keefe TF, Mounce LM, Heaton JA, Burcar PJ (1988) Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. Archives of Environmental Health 43:38–45
  • Gershon S, Shaw FB (1961) Psychiatric sequelae of chronic exposure to organophosphorous insecticides. Lancet 1:1371–1374
  • Metcalf DR, Holmes JH (1969) EEG, psychological and neurological alterations in humans with organophosphorous exposure. Annals New York Academy Science 160:357–365
  • Callender TJ, Morrow L, Subramanian K (1994) Evaluation of chronic neurological sequelae after acute pesticide exposure using SPECT brain scans. J Toxicology and Environmental Health 41:275– 284
  • Smith MI, Elvove I, Valaer PJ, Frazier WH, Mallory GE (1930) Pharmacologic and chemical studies of the cause of the so called ginger paralysis. US Public Health Reports 45:1703–1716
  • Henschler D, Bayer HH (1958) Toxicologic studies of triphenyl phosphate, trixenyl phosphates, and triaryl phosphates from mixtures of homogenous phenols. Archives of Experimental Pathology and Pharmacology 233:512–517
  • Daughtrey W, Biles R, Jortner B, Erlich M (1996) Subchronic delayed neurotoxicity evaluation of jet engine lubricants containing phosphorus additives. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 32:244–249
  • Montgomery MR, Wier GT, Zieve FJ, Anders MW (1977) Human intoxication following inhalation exposure to synthetic jet lubricating oil. Clinical Toxicology 11:423–426
  • Rayman RB, McNaughton GB (1983) Smoke/fumes in the cockpit. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 67:738–740
  • Tashkin DP, Coulson AH, Simmons MS, Spivey GH (1983) Respiratory symptoms of flight attendants during high altitude flight: Possible relation to cabin ozone exposure. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 52:117–137
  • Sparks PS, Simon GE, Katon WJ, Altman LC, Ayars GH, Johnson RL (1990) An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers. Western J Medicine 158:28–33
  • NAS (2001) The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew. US National Academy of Science, National Academy Press, Washington, DC
  • Singh B (2004) In flight smoke and fumes. Aviation Safety Spotlight, March 2004
  • Fox R (1997) Air Quality Testing Aboard Ansett Airlines BAe 146 Aircraft: Final Report. Allied Signal Aerospace, 25 November 1997
  • Craig P, Barth M (1999) Evaluation of the hazards of industrial exposure to tricresyl phosphate: A review and interpretation of the literature. J Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B Critical Reviews 2:281–300. Consultants, Mobil Business resources Coorporation, NJ
  • WHO (1986) Diseases caused by asphyxiants: Carbon monoxide, Hydrogen cyanide and its toxic derivatives, and Hydrogen sulfide. Early Detection of Occupational Diseases. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 154–164
  • Kayser, C., “General Features of the Problems of Aviation Toxicology,” Aviation Toxicology: An Introduction to the Subject and a Handbook of Data, Committee on Aviation Toxicology, Aero Medical Association. The Blakiston Company, NY, 1953, p. 1.
  • SAE Aerospace Information Report _AIR_ 1539: Environmental Control System Contamination, 1997 _originally issued 1981_, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
  • Robins, C. S., “737 Air Conditioning Engine Bleed Air Contamination,” Boeing Company report prepared for United Airlines, 1968.
  • Montgomery, M. R., Wier, G. T., Zieve, F. J., and Anders, M. W., “Human Intoxication Following Inhalation Exposure to Synthetic Jet Lubricating Oil,” Clin. Toxicol., Vol. 11, No. 4, 1977, pp. 423– 426.
  • NRC, The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew, U.S. National Research Council, ISBN 0-309-08289-7, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2002, pp. 110– 121.
  • Bobb, A. J. and Still, K. R., “Known Harmful Effects of Constituents of Jet Oil Smoke,” TOXDET- 03-04, Naval Health Research Center Detachment _Toxicology_, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 2003.
  • Hanhela, P. J., Kibby, J., DeNola, G., and Mazurek, W., “Organophosphate and Amine Contamination of Cockpit Air in the Hawk F-111, and Hercules C-130 Aircraft,” DSTO-RR- 0303, 2005, Australian Government Department of Defence, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
  • Harper, A., “A Survey of Health Effects in Aircrew Exposed to Airborne Contaminants,” J. Occup. Health Saf. Aust. N.Z., Vol. 21, No. 5, 2005, pp. 433–439.
  • Coxon, L., “Neuropsychological Assessment of a Group of BAe146 Aircraft Crewmembers Exposed to Jet Engine Oil Emissions,” J. Occup. Health Saf. Aust. N.Z., Vol. 18, No. 4, 2002, pp. 313–319.
  • Kelso, A. G., Charlesworth, J. M., and McVea, G. G., “Contamination of Environmental Control Systems in Hercules Aircraft: MRL-R-1116, AR-005-230,” Australian Government Department of Defence, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1988.
  • Crane, C. R., Sanders, D. C., Endecott, B. R., et al., “Inhalation Toxicology: III. Evaluation of Thermal Degradation of Products from Aircraft and Automobile Engine Oils, Aircraft Hydraulic Fluid, and Mineral Oil,” Aviation Medicine Report FAAAM-83-12, Civil Aeromedical Institute, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma City, OK, 1983.
  • Rayman, R. B. and McNaughton, G. B., “Smoke/Fumes in the Cockpit,” Aviat., Space Environ. Med., Vol. 54, No. 8, 1983, pp. 738–740.
  • van Netten, C. and Leung, V., “Hydraulic Fluids and Jet Engine Oil: Pyrolysis and Aircraft Air Quality,” Arch. Environ. Health, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2001, pp. 181–186.
  • van Netten, C. and Leung, V., “Comparison of the Constituents of Two Jet Engine Oil Lubricating Oils and Their Volatile Pyrolytic Degradation Products,” Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., Vol. 15, No. 3, 2000, pp. 277–283.
  • van Netten, C., “Analysis of Two Jet Engine Lubricating Oils and a Hydraulic Fluid: Their Pyrolytic Breakdown Products and Their Implications on Aircraft Air Quality,” Air Quality and Comfort in Airliner Cabins, ASTM STP 1393, N. L. Nagda, Ed., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 61–75.
  • Lautenberg, F., “Testimony of U.S. Senator F. R. Lautenberg on HR 969/S1524, the Airliner Cabin Air Quality Act of 1995,” Washington, DC, 1996.
  • ACARM, “Chapter 12: Frequency of Events and Underreporting,” Aviation Contaminated Air Reference Manual, Michaelis, S., Ed., ISBN 9780955567209, London, England, 2007, pp. 211–248.
  • Ballough, J., “Smoke in the Cockpit,” Presentation at the U.S.–Europe International Aviation Safety Conference by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration Director of Flight Standards Service, Washington,DC, 2006.
  • FAA, “Flight Standards Information Bulletin for Airworthiness _FSAW_ 06-05A: Guidance for Smoke/Fumes in the Cockpit/Cabin,” Order 8300.10, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, 2006.
  • Craig, P. H. and Barth, M. L., “Evaluation of the Hazards of Industrial Exposure to Tricresyl Phosphate: A Review and Interpretation of the Literature,” J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part B: Crit. Rev., Vol. 2, No. 4, 1999, pp. 281–300.
  • Weiner, M. L. and Jortner, B. S., “Organophosphate-Induced Neurotoxicity of Triarylphosphates,” Neurotoxicology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1999, pp. 653–673.
  • Daughtrey, W., Biles, R., Jortner, B., et al., “Subchronic Delayed Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Jet Engine Lubricants Containing Phosphorus Additives,” Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., Vol. 32, 1996, pp. 244–249.
  • Jamal, G. A., Hansen, G., and Julu, P. O. O., “Low Level Exposures to Organophosphorus Esters May Cause Neurotoxicity,” Toxicology, Vol. 181–182, 2002, pp. 23–33.
  • Bull, K. and Yeomans, H. “Outside Air Treatment Solutions for Aircraft,” Technical paper produced by Pall Aerospace _Issue 1_, Pall Europe Ltd., 2007.
  • ASHRAE, “Standard 161: Air Quality Within Commercial Aircraft: BSR/ASHRAE Standard 161- 2007,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 2008
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